Possibilities for combination therapy - September 15, 2002

Names in Bold have been studied in HIV+ humans.


After the LATIN NAMES, the parenthetical indicates the source for the presumption of anti-HIV activity:

DAAIR = the four herb Combination Therapy, reviewed in abstract at the International AIDS Conference in Geneva, 1998 (curcumin, bitter melon, SPV-30, glycyrrhizin). These have been studied in people with HIV and showed to have some modest activity as monotherapy; a retrospective review of individuals trying this combination therapy was undertaken, forming the basis for the poster.

Ho = Ho, et al. Chinese herbal extracts in the treatment of HIV related disease in vitro. January 12, 1993 referencing Ho, DD; Li; Xiling S. (Alhambra, CA). The invention features herbal extracts from ten (10) Chinese Herbal Medicines demonstrating significant in vitro and ex vivo anti-HIV activity and their use for the diagnosis and treatment of HIV and HIV-related disease. US Patent Office No. 5,178,865.

Huang = See note in Sources/References at end.

Punarvine = a mixture designed by Dr. Shashank Joshi (Bombay) for HIV treatment consists of Boerhaavia diffusa-50 mg; Beriberis aristata-50; Glycyrrhiza glabra-60; Phyllanthus emblicus-50; Terminalia chebula-50; Tinospora cordifolia-60; Trubulus terrestris-60; Swerti chirata-50; Withania somnifera-60 mg

Rege = Rege, NN, et al. Adaptogenic properties of six Rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytotherapy Res. 1999;13:275-291.

Xu = Xu et al., Phytotherapy Research, 1996;10:207-210.

"Labiatae" = Yamasaki K, Nakano M, Kawahata T, Mori H, Otake T, Ueba N, Oishi I, Inami R, Yamane M, Nakamura M, Murata H, Nakanishi T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol Pharm Bull 1998 Aug;21(8):829-33 Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Japan.

The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocimum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 microg/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

Latin Name

Common Name

Recognized Constituents


Chinese Medicine

Notes; Grieve/European, Iwu/African

Acanthopanax graciliatylus WW Smith (Ho); also an adaptogen

Related to Eleutherococcus senticosus ("Siberian" ginseng)?

0.12% alkaloids, 3.78% saponins, 4% glycosides, 5% volatile oil, vitamin A (.13%). Coumarin,arachidic acid, linoic acid. Anti-inflammatory diterpene from root.


Huang: Wu jia pi. Dried root bark used. Used to treat rheumatic arthritis, bone muscle aches, scrotal edema. Another species, A. girallic, is used in winemaking and has sedative effects similar to reserpine. A. senticosus contains polysaccharides which inhibit cancer cell proliferation and "enhance" immune system.


Andrographis paniculata, Nees.

King of Bitters; Chiretta


In Sanskrit, known as bhunimba or mahatikta, kirata; common Bengali household remedy consists of cumin, cardamom, anise seed with expressed leaf juice to treat malaria. Green leaves with anise seed as stomachic, antihelmintic; also used for loss of appetite, loose stools, flatulence; for sluggish liver, neuralgia, decoction/infusion of leaves taken

Huang: chuan xin lin; noted as liver protective; whole plant used, commonly dried aerial parts; antibacterial effects; used for bacterial dysentery, for diarrhea; lowers fever rapidly; for upper respiratory infections like tonsillitis, pneumonia, TB. Injectable or intramuscular solutions are also prepared.


Asparagus racemosus (Rege)

A. officinalis is asparagus.

A. cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merrilll is in the lily family; contains various saponins, asparagine, glucoses, fructoses, 5-methoxy-methyl furural and beta-sitosterol.

NS-A. racemosus is Shatavari; use the root; for cancer, convalescence, cough, herpes, ulcers; has antidarrhetic, refiregerant, diuretic, antidysenteric, nutritive, tonic, demulcent, galactagogue, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic and stomachic properties with A. officinalis, gonoclados, adscendens, sarmentosus as other species used.

NS-Huang: A. cochinensis is Tian dong which contains beta-sitosterol; effect on leukemia, lung cancer (animal/in vitro).

Hsu: notes this species is used to treat dry cough, dry mouth/throat, hemoptysis, constipation; sweet, bitter; cold; nourishes yin, moistens dryness, cleanses lung fire, controls cough.

Liliaceae; animal studies show reduction in mortality to sepsis from E. coli, offsets leucopenia and induces leucocytosis; offsets cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression and neutropenia.

Grieve: diuretic and laxative; as well as for gravel and dropsy.

Iwu: NS-A. africanus-hematuria, syphilis (Sudan), diuretic (leaves, roots), also used to treat psychosomatic disorder (evil spirits); A. buchananii - one of several herbs used for bilharzia; A. racemosus-anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative (leaves, fruits); A. setaceus -used for coughs

Astragalus membranaceus, (Fisch.) Bunge.


Various astragalosides; pigments, sugars, linoleic and linolenic acids, beta-sitosterol, betaine, choline, soyasaponin I

NS-A. virus, Oliver is noted (Gum Tragacanth); used in medicinal lozenges and styptic powders; for irritation of mucous membranes of pulmonary, genito-urinary organs. Various cosmetic alternatives discussed.

Huang: Dried root is huang se; contains coumarin and flavonoid derivatives; used for common cold and influenza; ointments for wounds.

Hsu: Huang-Chi; may represent other species; dried root used. Used as a tonic; for nephritis (30-60 grams); diuretic effects; effective for nephritis with proteuria; cardiotonic, vasodilation, antbacterial.


Berberis aristata-50 (Punarvine)

Nepal Barberry, Darlahad

"Considerable quantities" (Grieve) of berberine alkaloid; tanin, resin, gum, starch, other alkaloids.

Tonic, stomachic, astringent, antiperiodic, diaphoretic, antipyretic, alterative.

NS-Huang: San ke zhen or ziao yeh gen; berberine; anti-bacterial; to remove heat, dampness; purging intense heat; bacterial dysentery, upper resp. infections, urethral infections.

Berberidaceae. Grieve - Dried stems are used;; bitter tonic, antiperiodic, diaphoretic.

Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.-50 mg (Punarvine)

Red or Spreading Hogweed

also Tar vine

High proportion of potassium nitrate in air-dried; potassium salts; small quantity of the alkaloid, punarnavine.


Inhibits sheep RBC delayed type hypersensitivity; inhibits bacterial infection of cells; inhibits a range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria; in vivo effects?

Punarnava; red is raktpunaranava, white is Shweta punarnarva. Herb and root used. Tirtha: Red is bitter, cool, pungent; for nervous system, heart disease, skin problems, kidney stones, rat, snake bites; leaf juice for jaundice; vermifuge. White is laxative, diaphoretic for edema, anemia, heart disease, colic, cough, kidney problems as well as uses for red.

Huang: NG; Hsu: NG

Nadkarni: notes white form is used in medicine; roots are bitter, stomachic, laxative, diuretic, expectorant, diaphoretic, emetic; root is further antihelmintic, purgative and febrifuge; white variety for edema, anemia, heart disease, cough and intestinal colic. Ointment for leprosy, skin diseases; appears beneficial for liver-related ascites.

Nyctaginease. Grieve: NG

Rat study showed a 5-herb combo cured 89% of ameba-infected rats (equivalent to metronidazole but required a higher dose); however, the cure-rate expressed as ADI was 0.4 compared to complete cure (0.0) in metronidazole treated; sham treated rate was 3.8 (J. Ethnopharmacol, 1995 Jan;45(1):43.52. 5-herbs used were B. diffusa, B. aristata, T. cordifolia, Zingiber officinales, T. chebula.

Iwu: Roots, leaves used for dysmennorhea, jaundice, asthma.

Bostaurus domesticus (Ho)

a/k/a Bos taurus.

Bovine choleic


Gall stone of a bull.

Huang: Cholic acid, birirubin, cholesterol, ergosterol, vitamin D, calcium salts, copper, iron

Mostly refers to uses of cow dung; fresh used onburns to alleviate pain; stops bleeding.

Huang: Niu huang. Anticonvulsive and sedative. Removes heat from heart and liver. Often used with huang lian (Coptis chinensis, Franch.), huang qin (Scutellaria baicalensis), zhi zi (Gardenia jasminoides).

Found in China, southern Africa.

Buchenavia capitata (Huang)




Huang: protects cells infecte by HIV; low therapeutic index.


Buxus sempervirens, Linn. (DAAIR)

Boxwood (SPV-30)

Contains a variety of alkaloids buxine, para-buxine, buxinidine, buinamine. wood is diaphoretic; leaves are bitter, purgative, diaphoretic; bark is febrifuge. Leaves used in rheumatism and syphilis.


Huang: NG.


Coptis chinensis (Ho); also rhizome: (Xu)

Gold thread rhizome; see next entry


Report in Xu indicate 100% blocking of HIV protease (250 mg/ml).

An alkaloid which is an isoquinoline derivative; berberine is a primary costituent which can decrease ventricular fibrillation; releases arachidonic acid from cell membranes, inhibits platelet aggregation, lowers thromboxane (TXB2) and PGI2. Demonstrated activity against Candida albicans, MAI, Hep-62 hepatoma cell growth; misc. antiprotozoal and antivirus effects.

NS-see C. teetoides below.


Huang notes that OD can caues nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, convulsions. Avoid use in jaundice infants, pregnant women. Query: people with liver disease or hyperbilirbuinemia?


Berberine preparations are made in 50 or100 mg tablets, doses of 1 to 3 tid. Injections are also sometimes used.

Huang: C. chinensis huang lian contains principally berberine; used for dysentery, whooping cough, diphtheria; scarlet, typhoid fevers. Notes dried rhizome of C. deltoidea, teetoides CY Cheng and chinensis Franch. are used.

see also Berberis dictyophylla: Coptis chinensis (huang lian) contains berberine. Injections slow heart rate altho lower doses may stimulate it; can be used instead of chloramphenicol for cholera; effects against C. albicans and MAI. Avoid vitamin B6 if using as antibacterial. Hsu: fidgets due to heat, abdominal pain; fullness in chest/abdomen, tenesmus hemoptysis, epistaxis, conjunctivitis, tumor, oral ulceration.

Ranunculacae. Grieve: Notes form is has higher percentage of berberia than any other drug; used as tonic, esp. for stomach. C. trifolia used as bitter; local application for thrush in children. Used for dyspepsia. Also a hypertensive agent; wound infections, septicemia an hepatitis are other uses. See Berberis

Coptis teetoides, Franch.

Gold thread root


(See Thalictrum foetidum)

See previous entry.

Mamira, Mishamitita. C. teeta Wall. Bitter tonic for appetite (no tannic acid; removes flatulence. Used for jaundice, dyspepsia, fevers. Roots of Thalictrum foliolosum and Picrorhiza are cheaper substitutes, hard to distinguish.

Huang: C. chinensis huang lian contains principally berberine; used for dysentery, whooping cough, diphtheria; scarlet, typhoid fevers. Notes dried rhizome of C. deltoidea, teetoides CY Cheng and chinensis Franch are used. Hsu: fidgets due to heat, abdominal pain; fullness in chest/abdomen, tenesmus hemoptysis, epistaxis, conjunctivitis, tumor, oral ulceration.

Ranunculacae. Grieve: Notes form is has higher percentage of berberia than any other drug; used as tonic, esp. for stomach. C. trifolia used as bitter; local application for thrush in children. Used for dyspepsia. Also a hypertensive agent; wound infections, septicemia an hepatitis are other uses. See Berberis

Chrysanthemum morifolium (Huang)



NS-C. coronarium, Linn and C. indicum, L. both noted as gonorrhea treatments.

Huang: Inhibits HIV replication, EC50 is 5 micromolar.


Curcuma longa

Curcumin; Turmeric; Saffron (?-Nadkarni)

6%is essential oil, major constituents of which are l-curcamene (65.5%), ssquiterpene (22%), camphor (2.5%), camphene (0.8%). Other components include curcumin, curzerenone, curzenene, furanodienone, furanodiene, zederone, curculone, curcumol, procurcumenol, curcumadiol, curdione.


Curcumin as major active increases glutathione-S-transferase hepatic level and acid-soluble sulfhydryls; can reverse aflatoxin-associated liver damage. Inhibits 12-lipooxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity.

Haridra, Gauri. Curry powders owes its aroma and taste to oil. Aromatic, stimulant, tonic, carminative. Int. rhizome juice is antihelmintic; ext. for bruises, leech bites. Mixed with cow's urine in some formulae for int/ext use; sometimes mixed with neem leaves, topically for ringworm, itching, eczema. Int. for jaundice, liver problems. Various takes for digestives, obstinate skin complaints. Choleretic and for liver.

Huang: C. aromatica (yu jin) may also be C. longa. Listed as choleretic and antihepatitis Trad. use is to activate blood flow, remove blood stasis, promote qi circulation, relieve depression, remove heat from heart, normalize gallbladder fx, cure jaundice. Clinical efficacy against cervical cancer, leukemia. Ext. for chronic ulcers, scabies. C. zedoaria (e zhu). Hsu: Chiang-huang, jiang-huang. pungent, warm; for general pain, shoulder arthritis. Stimulates bile secretion, detoxifies liver, hypotensive (anesthetized dogs?), uterine-stim.

Zingiberaceae; but Nadkarni says Scitaminaceae.

Some anti-HIV activity in human clinical studies; inhibits HIV long terminal repeat, integrase in vitro. May inhibits TNF and IL-1 in macrophage cell lines. Inhibits platelet aggregation.

Grieve: Mild aromatic stimulant "rarely used in medicine." Once a cure for jaundice but now merely as a colorant, additive to curry and mustard (adulterant in the latter case). Curcumin is the yellowish coloring matter left after boiling in alcohol, filtering and drying, the remaining residue digested in ether, filtered and evaporated.

Iwu: Anti-inflammatory, vermifuge, embrocation using rhizome. West Africa as antihelmintic, ointment for skin diseases; also as anti-inflammatory and eye wash for conjunctivitis. East Africa, powdered rhizome mixed with flour and applied to head for headache relief. Rhizome and juice in Mauritius as emmenagogue. Non-toxic. Lab studies show cortisone effects, antitumor, reducing cholesterol (rat model).

Derris scandens, Benth. (Thailand)


Nadkarni notes that D. uliginosa, Benth contains alkaloid, other chemicals

Bark is used for snakebite; acts as a cholagogue; as a fish poison. Nala tige (Tamil).

Huang: NG


Dianthus caryophyllus


DAP30, DAP32


Huang: leaves are used. Cites Lee-Huang S et al. PEBS Lett. 1991;291:139.

see table following this table.

Embelia schimperi

gezi, ibinini

Embelin and derivatives; naphthaquinones.

NS-E. ribes, Burm. discussed; berries, leaves, root-bark used. Embelic acid is volatile fixed oil; tannin, alkaloids. Berries are carminative, antihelmintic, stimulant alterative.


Sudanese botanical with activity against Hep C protease. Iwu: Bark, roots, stem and fruit used in different cultures. Embelin and derivatives active against various parasites; studies show efficacy against ascarides. Zulu use the fruit as taeniacide.

Emblica officinalis (Rege)


A/K/A Phyllanthus emblica, L.

Amla berry; Emblic myrobalan, Indian gooseberry

Chebulinic acid, chebulic acid, phyllemblic acid, emlicol, mucic acid, a glycoside

Amalaki. Dried fruit (refrigerant, laxative, diuretic, stomachic, carminative), nut or seed, leaves, root, bark (astringent), flowers (cooling, aperient). Used in many formulae with all parts of the plant used. decoction or infusions of leaves, seeds; essential oil, confections, powders, pastes and pickles. Astringent extract like catechu from root by decoction, evaporation. For eyes, skin, head, ext. In various herbal blends for phthisis, febrifuge, as collyrium for eye complaints, to stop nausea and vomiting, purgative/

Huang: As P. emblica, yu gan zi. Hepatoprotective effect; antitumor activity by activating NK cells and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Protects against genotoxic effects of lead and aluminum; primarily used for common cold, cough, sore throat; for diarrhea; externally for eczema.

Euphorbiaceae. Synonym is Phyllanthus emblica. Grieve: NG.

Epimedium sagittatum, (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim. (leaf; Xu)

? Found in China, Japan

Polysaccharide, glycosides icariin and noricariin.


Whole plant antirheumatic, aphrodisiac, carminative, expectorant, ophthalmic, vasodilator. Used as a kidney tonic; for sterility. Int. for asthma, bronchitis, cold or numb extremities, arthritis, lumbago, impotence, involuntary and premature ejaculation, high blood pressure and absentmindedness. Use with caution; excess can cause vomiting, dizziness, thirst, nosebleeds. Huang: May reverse AZT effects of lowering IL-2 production and DNA production. Endstage kidney failure, normalized low levels of sIL-2R and IL-6.


Erycibe obtusifolia, Benth. (Ho)


According to Ho patent, blocks p24 production; found in s. China, Taiwan, Japan, Indonesia and N. Australia. A cholinergic tropane alkaloid extract developed in China; used to treat glaucoma.

NS-E. paniculata Roxb. noted as in Covolvulaceae and bark used in treating cholera. Known as kari.

NG; Hsu: root, stem used; ting-kung-teng or ding-gong-deng; pungent, warm, poisonous; diaphoretic; dispels wind-dampness; reduces swelling, pain; for rheumatic arthritis, hemiplegia, ext/int trauma. Expel wind-dampness and alleviate pain; for arthralgia, lumbago, pain of lower extremities, trauma, and abdominal pain; ext use for primary glaucoma. Scopoletin has antiphlogistic effect in experimental animals; miotic effect of 0.01% erycibes A is similar to that of 2% pilocapine; antifever.

Convolvulaceae. Animal studies suggested minimal antioxidant activity; a mouse study suggests caution and keeping an eye on liver enzymes and kidney function (BUN).

Gelonium multiflorum (Huang)




Huang: Notes that GAP31 is a 31 kD single-chain, ribosome inactivating protein with effects on T cells; similar action as MAP30 (see Momordica).

Euphorbiaceae. Seeds of this Himalayan plant are used.

Glycyrrhiza glabra-60 (Punarvine), also (DAAIR)


A variety of glycosides, including glycyrrhizin (6-14%), glycyrrhizic acid, isoliquiritigenin, isoliquiritin, liquiritin, licoricidin; also the isoflavone licochalcone A.

Yashthimadhu. Peeled root; tonic, cooling, demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, gentle laxative; scorpion sting. Used as adjunct in many preparations. Demulcent for inflammatory conditions from mouth to anus. Root mixed with lime and linseed for coughs, colds, feverishness, pain, breathing distress and to allay thirst. Other blends for TB, bilious fevers, leucorrhea, uterine complaints; lozenges for bronchii.

NS-Huang: G. uralensis (gan cao) or G. inflata, G. glabra under herbs affecting adrenal cortex. Glycyrrhetic acid, glycyrrhizin, glucosides, etc. Effective against IFN-resistant HCV. Hsu: sweet, neutral; sore throat, carbuncle, toxic swelling, toxicosis of fetus, children; diarrhea due to spleen deficiency; thirst due to stomach deficiency, cough due to dry lungs; detoxifying action on bacterial toxins, poisons; antispasmodic, gastric secretion-inhibition, anti-inflammatory (similar to adrenal hormones); anti-ulcer (carbenoxolone), antitussive, anti-allergic.

Papilionaceae. Grieve: Pretty much lists the same benefits; demulcent remedy for coughs, consumption, chest complaints; often used with infusion of linseed for catarrh of intestines, whooping cough, sore throat, laryngitis; sugar in licorice is safely used by diabetics. With senna and/or fennel, makes mild laxative. Indian licorice, wild licorice, prayer beads are Abrus percatorious Linn; can be used similarly (contains glycyrrhizzin) but contains acrid, toxic resins.

Iwu: Roots used as demulcent, expectorant. In north Africa as cough remedy, to prevent extreme thirst; in southern/eastern Africa for TB and appendicitis; lotion for eye diseases; notes toxicities (high bp, low potassium level, pseudoaldosteronism) arise from overdose or in hypersensitive people; clin. use for prostaglandin, thromboxane inhibition, HIV, skin diseases; notes that glycyrrhizin is used in many Kampo formulae.

Homalanthus nutans


AIDS Research Alliance

Prostratin isolated from plant

Phorbol ester



Used in Samoan tradition; the leaves are used to treat back pain, the root is used to treat diarrhea and the stem wood is used to treat yellow fever. In contrast to many other phorbol derivatives prostratin does not appear to be a tumor promoter, and, in fact, suppressed the growth of several T-cell lines at anti-viral concentrations

Hypericum triquetrifolium, Turra.H. chinensis, L. (Huang)

St. John's wort

hypericin. pseudohypericin, glycoside-hyperin, hyperforat

NS-H. perforatum, L. grows in Himalayas; astringent, aromatic, antihelmintic, diruetic, purgative. leaves are vermifuge; flowers contain red resin (coloring). Leaves for diarrhea, piles, prolapsus of uterus, anus.

Huang: Notes that hypericin and pseudohypericin exhibit anti-HIV activity; whole plant is used; note the presence of hypericin, hyperin and pseudohypericin; anti-HIV in vitro

Hypericaceae. Intense phototoxicities limit the use of the injectable drug; studies still going on in Israel?

Note studies in HIV-negative users of St. John's wort with indinavir resulted in significantly depleted levels of indinavir.

Illicium lanceolatum, A.S. Smith (Ho)

Japanese star anise

Toxic; contains anisatin,neoanisatin, pseudoanisatin, shikinic acid.

Huang notes it is different from I. verum, Hook. dried ripe fruit contains essential oils.

NS-I. verum Hook. is star anise (anasphal or badian); oil from fruit commonly used in India, imported from China; aromatic, carminative, stomachic, stimulant, diuretic, expectorant. Usually given in infusion; often given to kids as carminative. Also as cough medicine; oil smeared on colicky kid's abdomen; also used for facial paralysis.

May be poisonous; not to be confused with Chinese star anise (Pimpinella anisum)


Isatis tinctoria, L. (Ho)

Dyer's wood root; pan-lan-ken

Glcosides indican, isatan B. Also glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, 1-sulpho-3-indolylmethylglucosinolate.


Huang: NS-I. indigotica, Fort. is also used; dried leaf, da qing ye or qing dai. Used for acute parotitis, upper respiratory infection, encephalitis, hepatitis, lung abscess, dysentery, acute gastroenteritis. Tried for HIV but no data reported. Displays antibacterial, antiviral (flu), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory properties.


Larrea tridentata, (Huang)

chaparral, creosote

MAL4, a plant lignan 3'O-methylnordehydroguaia-rectic acid


Huang: Inhibits both RT and tat-reuated transactivation in vitro. Also LTR binding.

Liver toxicities of whole herb should be carefully reviewed.

Ligusticum wallichii, Franch. (Ho)

Lovage root


Osha root is L. porteri

3 alkaloids isolated: tetramethylpyrazine -TMP, leucylphenylalanine anhydride, perlolyrine; a 4th in this species; several essential oils; ferulic acid, cnidilide, neocnidilie, ligustilide.

NS-L. diffusum note says see Seseli Indicum: Umbelliferae; seeds are "good" helmintic (round worms); used as stimulant, carminative, stomachic. Also to treat cattle.

Huang: L. chuanziang Hort. also usedas chuan xiong; dried rhizome. Farily nontoxic; slows heart rate; improves coronary circulation; lowers bp. In dogs, lowers pulmonary artery pressure. Inhibits platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis; may lower LDL. May prolong barbiturate induced sleep, reduce caffeine effects

In vitro test showed suppression of HIV p24.


Huang: Injections of TMP used to treat angina pectoris (88% efficacy); cerebral ischemia in clinical studies in humans. Herb also used to reduce post-partum pain and to promote placental discharge.

Lonicera japonica (Ho)



Triterpenoid saponins, luteolin, insotol, alpha-hederin, sapondoside, chlorogenic acid. (See blueberry leaves).

NS-L. glauca, Hk. f.&T. is Shewa; seeds given to horses for colic.

Huang: Antibiotic effects; used for tonsilliis, carbuncles, influenza, pneumonia, mastitis; may protect liver

Hsu: Sweet flavor, cold property. Dried flowers often used. In vitro activity against many bacteria; diuretic, antispasmodic, stomachic, anti-flu.

Caprifoliaceae. In vitro test showed suppression of HIV p24 (didn't state concentration); Ho patent application but looked at it with Isatis tinctoria or I. indigotica with Polygonum bistorta, L. or in formula 49, Scutellaria baicalensis.

Mangifera indica (Huang-HSV2)


Mangiferin; various sugars; citric, malic acids.

Fruit, kernel, leaves, flowers, bark and gm used. Bark, gum, kernel astringent; tonic. Kernel also antihelmintic. Fruit is laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic, astringent, refrigerant.

Huang: active against HSV-2 replication; IC50 112 mu-g/ml


Melia azadirachta (neem leaf)

M. azederach is (Nadkarni) Chinese Lilac.


M. azadirachta Linn. is Neem or Margosa Tree, Indian Lilac, bead tree.

Probably not effective against HIV (anecdotal observations at DAAIR).

NS-M. azadirachta (Nimba) all parts of plant are used; root bark (astringent, tonic, antiperiodic) exudes resin with alkaloid, margosine. Acts against various parasites, prophylaxis against malaria; Bark (bitter tonic, astringent, antiperiodic, vermifuge); fruit (purgative, emollient, antihelmintic); leaves (discutient); leaf juice (antihelmintic); flowers (stimulant, tonic, stomachic). Bark used in various formulae for malarial fevers; tincture of bark and decoction of root bark found useful in malarial fevers; used in smallpox, leprosy, scrofula. Used in various formula in decoction or as poultice for skin diseases (itch), lice, exudative lesions, leprosy.

M. azedarach, L. bark (cathartic, emetic); flowers, leaves (emmenagogue, resolvent); root-bark bitter, emetic, antihelmintic, in large doses, narcotic); leaves antihelmintic, antilithic, diuretic, emmenagogue, decocted as astringent and stomachic.

Huang: NS-M. toosendan - chuan lian or ku lian pi, listed as antihelmintic, may also be root bark or dried stem of neem; causes parasites to contract, detaching from intestinal wall; purgation results; antibacterial effects; side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain with occasional skin eruption or blurred vision; used for thousands of years as antihelmintics; clinically for ascaris, oxyuris, trichuris, hookworm; also ext for skin sarcoidosis, ringworm. Hsu: NS-M. toosendan Sieb. et Zucc. dried fruit (Chinaberry), chuan-lien-tzu is bitter, cold, qi regulating; with toosendanin, nimbinin; antihelmintic; analgesic. Dried root-bark and bark of M. azedarach L., M. toosendan; M. azadirachta L. var. japonica Makino is ku-lien-ken-pie, ku-lian-gen-pi with sweet, astringent flavor, neutral; similar bitter triterpenoids; antihelmintic; paralyzes head of Ascaris suis.

Meliaceae. Grieve: NS-M. azadirachta notes margosin, tannic acid; bark of root, trunk; seed used. Bark oil anihelmintic, emetic; ext for rheumatism. Tapped for stomachic toddy. Nut oil for cramps, obstinate ulcers; ointments used against lice from pulp and for "scald head" and other skin diseases.

anthelmintic (leaf juice, stembark); antirheumatic (seed, ext.); antiseptic (fruit); aphrodisiac; astringent (stembark); bitter (stembark); diuretic (leaf juice); emetic (root bark); emmenagogue (leaf juice, root bark); febrifuge (fruit); laxative; lithontripic (leaf juice); purgative (root bark); stomachic; vermifuge (pulp, root bark); tonic. Ext. for rheumatism; aqueous extract reduces the intensity of asthmatic attacks; flowers and leaves as poultice for neuralgia, nervous headache; used as a tonic in India; rootbark highly effective against ringworm, parasitic skin diseases; gum considered aphrodisiac; use with caution, preferably under supervision of a qualifed practitioner; excess causes diarrhea,vomiting and symptoms of narcotic poisoning

Iwu: NS- M. azederach stems, leave used for fevers, purgative, venereal diseases, malaria; M. volkesii leaves, stem bark for headache, cutaneous leishmania.

Mentha piperita, L. (Labiatae)

grapefruit mint


Menthol, mint camphor, tannin, resins, gum

Leaves used. Antiseptic, deodorant, stimulant, carminative. Ext for congestive headaches, rheumatism, neuralgia. Int as tea for vomiting, gastric colic, cholera, diarrhea, flatulence, dysmenorrhea, hiccup.

Huang: NS-M. haplocalyx is bo he. Used as stomachic, to dispel wind and heat; ext for common cold, headache.


Mentha x piperita var. crispa (Labiatae)


see previous entry, thymol

Noted as M. sylvestris, L. and M. crispa as a species. Leaves, flowering tops used.

NS-see previous entry. Hsu: notes M. arvensis inhibits CNS; dilates blood vessels; ext analgesic and antipruritic.


Mormordica charantia, Linn. (Huang, DAAIR)

Bitter Melon, Bitter Gourd

momorcharin, MAP30

other bitter glucoside; yellow acid, resin

Karela, Kareli, Karavella, Sushavi. Bitter fruit often used; comes in a longer, wrinkly form (skin/wrinkles very bitter) and smaller, ovoid shape. Tonic, stomachic, stimulant, emetic, anti-bilious, laxative, alterative. Leaves also used. Fruit use for gout, rheumatism, ext root used as paste for piles; leaf juice with turmeric for nausea.

Huang: Notes effect of MAP-30 on HIV-1 integrase, HIV-LTR; apparently nontoxic to healthy cells as it cannot enter them. Inhibits infection of T cells and macrophages and inhibits replication in infected cells. Widely used as food and for immune disorders and common infections.


Ocimum basilicum, L. cv "cinnamon" (Labiatae)

Sweet Basil

Yellowish-green essential oil in leaves with a terpene variant; seeds: mucilage

Herb and seeds used; leaves for flavoring. Seeds for catarrh, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, cystitis, internal piles.

Huang: NG


Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis (Labiatae)


l-perilla aldehyde; alcohol; same omega-3 fatty acids as flax oil


Huang: zu su; leaf used as antibacterial, to treat cough.


Phellodendron amurense (bark) (Xu)


Alkaloids berberine, phellodendrine (may act to dampen cell-mediated immune responses); palmatine; obacunone.


Huang: NS-P. chinense is huang bai; dried bark used; antibacterial effects; increases coronary flow, lowers bp; use to purge heat, remove damp; for dysentery, jaundice, TB, meningitis.


Phyllanthus emblicus-50 (Punarvine)

Emblica officinalis

See Emblica officinalis

Notes to see Emblica officinalis; various other species of Phyllanthus discussed.


Piper longum (Rege)

Long pepper, dried catkins


(Probably just used as adjuvant in formula; may enhance absorption of other active constituents in other herbs?)

Pippali. Immature berries (dried unripe fruits or fruiting spikes) dried in the sun; stems (roots); stimulant, carminative, alterative tonic more powerful than black pepper; aphrodisiac, diuretic, vermifuge, emmenagogue; root is stimulant. Used with ginger, black pepper for hoarseness, cough as well as GI complaints; oil rubbed on sciatica, lumbago with other oils as rubifacient.

Huang: fruit spike is bi ba to dispel cold, relieve pain, stomachic, dispels wind and chi; Hsu: pi-po, pi-bo; dried fruit; pungent, hot; warms middle warmer, disperses cold; for cold pain in chest and abdomen, vomiting, acid regurgitation, borborygmus, diarrhea, headache, sinusitis, toothache; analgesic, stomachic effects; action against Staph. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli; piperine destroys flies

Piperaceae. Grieve: fruit is a dark gray; the younger is better than later; extremely hot; contains piperine; she avers that P. nigrum is superior.

Iwu: NS-P. capense leaves, fruits used in coughs, antihelmintic, fevers, insecticide; P. guineense fruits, leaves used as carminative, restorative soup after childbirth, embrocation for sprains

Polygonum bistorta (Ho)

great bistort, adderwort, English serpentary, snakeweed, snake root, dragonwort, osterick, oderwort, Easter mangiant, twice writhen, patience dock, sweet dock, red legs

beta-sitosterol; tannin

NS-various species noted as diuretic, carminative, antihelmintic; root for diarrhea, dysentery; P. flaccidum for insect, snake-bite; P. glabrum leaves to relieve colic pain; fever, "stitch in side"

Huang: rhizome is cao he che; in mouse model, inhibits mouse S-180 cancer line; Hsu: NS-many species; P. bistorta L., quan-shen is snakeweed rhizome, bitter, mild, cold, poisonous (or Paris genus); for fever, epilepsy, tetanus; P. cymosum Trev. kai-jin-suo is root, rhizome with sweet, sour, bitter, cold; for swollen throat, hepatitis, tendon pain, bacillary dysentery, carbuncle, scrofula; P. chinense L. is Chinese smartweed, huo-tan-mu-cao, sour, cool; for diarrhea, febrifuge, headache; P. hydropiper L. smartweed, shui-liao, pungent, neutral, entire plant, for summer digestive disorders, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, dysentery, scabies; found in shen-gu mixture for promoting appetite; a/k/a liao-shi which is seed for tumor,scrofula, cholera, scalp lesions, abdominal mass, edema, toxic lesions.

Polygonaceae. Grieve: NS-P. fagopyrum is buckwheat; Chinese variety is P. cymosum while P. tartaricum is an important source of flour. Called soba in Japan; cakes may cause reactions in some; by contrast, P. erecta is knotgrass, a variety of P. aviculare; whole herb is used, highly astrigent and as infusion or decoction for diarrhea; used as a gargle and remedy for inflammatory diseases of the tissues.

Iwu: NS-P. senegalensis leaves, whole plant used for rheumatic pains, syphilitic sores, inflammation; P. setosulum in list of psychosomatic diseases (curses, demons, etc.)

Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica (Labiatae)


saponins, alkaloids

Merely notes it is an expectorant and antiseptic.

Huang: flower petals are xia ku cao; inhibits various cancer cell lines such as mouse s-180, cervix, thyroid, breast, hepatoma; also has effects as antibacterial, cardiotonic, diuretic


Prunus mume, Sieb. et Zucc. (fruit) (Xu)


prudomenus tannic acid

Apricots are nutrient and tonic; may form an antidote to hill sickness; dried fruit for thirst, refrigerant, laxative; seeds used in some confections; kernels nearly half oil similar to almond oil. Pits may contain cyanide.

Huang: overdose can be very toxic; may be other species; Hsu: xing-ren; seed contains amygdalin, bitter, warm, slightly poisonous for cough due to exogenous pathogenic factor, dyspnea, constipation

Rosaceae. Grieve: Cheaper but similar quality to almond oil; often used in cosmetics to soften skin, in soaps, cold creams, perfumes.

Laetrile, a putative cancer treatment, derived from pits; efficacy in doubt.

Rhus javanica (gall) (Xu)


Huang: R. chinensis or R. punjabensis contain 50-70% gallotannin and gallotannic acid

NS-various other species,tho. R. coriaria, Linn. has fruit which is a powerful astringent; Sumac; useful in dystentery; checks bilious diarrhea, allays vomiting and hemoptysis; checks leucorrhea, diuresis; powder, extract or gargle used; paste applied to unhealthy ulcers, piles. R. succedanea, Linn., R. acuminata (notes to see also Pistacia integerrima), is astringent, tonic, expectorant, stimulant; gall is also a cholegogue; bitter, astringent taste; tannins. For cough, phthisis, asthma, fever, lost appetite, stomach irritability and respiratory tract disorders.

Huang: wu bei zi; actually, the excrescences of an insect (Melaphis chinensis) that eats the leaf; excess amounts may damage the liver. Astringent to proteins, used for chronic intestinal ifnections and to staunch bleeding; strong coagulant properties.


Salvia miltiorrhiza (Ho)

Sage or turkey corn


(See also Corydalis)

Tanshinones, cryptotanshinone, miltirone, tanshinols, salviol

NS-S. officinalis Linn. procures immortality!, relieves fatigue, preserves teeth; greatly esteemed for a variety of ailments; relieves cough, diuretic, blood purifying, menses promotion; remedy of sequelae of catarrhs for throat, pharynx; for chronic liver, kidney diseases, cystitis, slowing mammary gland secretion

Huang: dried root or rhizome is tan seng, containing several ketone dervivatives; an antianginal herb; tanshinone exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity in vitro; slows heart rate; protective effect against myocardial ischemia (animal studies); dilates peripheral blood vessels; pretty non-toxic; stabilizes nerves; lowers cholesterol, triglycerides; anticoagulant, fibrinolytic effects; Hsu: shi juan chuan; bitter, pungent, neutral; dysphagia, asthma from phlegm accumulation, hepatitis, pinkish-white leukorrhea, carbuncle, scrofula is Chinese sage (S. chinensis); Red Sage Root is dan-shen, bitter, mild, cold of S. miltiorrhiza; metrorrhagia, postmenstrual abdominal pain, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, arthralgia; tanshinones are principal ingredients; hypotensive effects (animals); test tube effects against E. coli, Bacillus tyhpi, B. dysenteriae, M. tuberculosis (and in mice)

Labiatae. Grieve: NS-discusses a variety of sagesS. officinalis Linn. is common sage; leaves, whole herb is used; highly valued; teas made for gargle, bleeding gums, sore throats; long used for epilepsy, nervousnes; volatile oil is a "violent epileptiform convulsant: smelling of which can cause intoxication and giddiness; used to remove respiratory mucous collection; many uses, recipes; S. sclarea or Clary herb, leaves, seeds used as antispasmodic, blasamic, carinative, tonic, aromatic, aperitive, astrigent and pectoral; S. verbenaca or wild English Clary leaves/seeds used to help improve eyesight.

Listed at Dharmapala site; not in Tsarong.

Sambucus niger (DAAIR)

Elderberry, Elder Tree

Sambunigrin (cyanogenetic glucoside; benzaldehyde, oxalic acid in leaves; flowers; ethereal oil

S. nigra, Linn.; inner bark is hyrogogue, cathartic, antiepileptic. Flowers are diaphoretic, sudorific, laxative; berries, increase renal funciton.



Satureja montana (Labiatae)

Winter savory


Summer savory is S. hortensis

Essential oil used in lotions for scalp in cases of incipient baldness.


Antiseptic; aromatic; carminative; digestive; expectorant; stings; stomachic; most often a culinary herb, but also for digestive system; whole herb, esp. flowering shoots, mildly antiseptic, aromatic, carminative, digestive, mildly expectorant, stomachic. Int. for colic, flatulence, gastroenteritis, cystitis, nausea, diarrhea, bronchial congestion, sore throat, menstrual disorders. Do not use if pregnant. Ext. sprig of the plant, rubbed onto bee or wasp stings, brings instant relief; ointment for arthritic joints.


Scutellaria baicalensis (Ho, Huang)



NS-S. galericulata, Linn. and S. Indica, Linn. (Labiatae) noted only as containing the glucoside scutellarin.

Huang: Notes it inhibits RT, reduces p24 level, stimulates T and NK proliferation.


Sutherlandia frutescens






Swertia chirata-50 mg (Punarvine)

Type of gentian; Chiretta

Ophelic acid (bitter) chiratin (bitter glucoside); resins, gum, carbonates

Chirayata. Tinnevelly "nilavembu" is best variety; contains ophelic acid (bitter), chiratin, a bitter glucoside, resins, gum, carbonates, phosphates of potash, lime, magnesia; no tannins. Bitter tonic, stomachic, febrifuge, antihelmintic (by Col. Chopra). Many preparations; essentially equivalent to gentians in actions; bitter principle similar to G. kurroo; there are also various "spurious" varieties on the market as well. Used in scorpion sting. Similar to Ophelia sp. and Andrographis paniculata as well.

Huang: NS-dong yao is S. pseduochinensis Hara or S. franchetiana; protective against CCl4 liver injury; hypoglycemic effects; used in acute icteric hepatitis; may cause diarrhea, dizziness, corrected with reduced dosage; S. mileensis (whole plant) used similarly. Hsu: NS-Japanese name is toyaku which is dried entire plant of S. japonica (Schult.) Makino or S. pseudochinensis Hara; bitter, chill; for indigestion and poor appetite; glycosides, acids, alkaloids (gentianine); increases mouth/stomach acidity, secretion of bile, pancreatic juice and saliva; increases peripheral blood flow in rabbit.

Gentianaceae. Grieve: Notes it contains two bitter principles, ophelic acid and chiratin; extremely bitter; overdose causes sickness, sense of oppression in the stomach; good for liver, promoting bile secretion; cures constipation, good for dyspepsia; restores tone after illness. Many species may be used as adulterants.


Huang: Notes that S. franchetiana inhibits HIV-1 RT at 200 micrograms/ml.

Terminalia chebula (Rege); also 60 mg 50 (Punarvine)

Myrobalan or chebulic myrobalan; ink nut, gall nut; Harad

Chebulinic acid, corilagin, terchebin, chebulin, quinic acid


Myrobalans, mature fruits, contains tannin, gallic acid, mucilage

Haritaki. Lengthy discourse; dried, immature or mature fruits, galls, often just the outer skin; tannins, gallic acid, chebulinic acid (with heat, becomes tannic, gallic acid); safe, effective purgative (gentle laxative), astringent, alterative; 4 varieties of fruit: survari harade, large (2" long, oval shape), yellowish-brown; rangari harade, smaller, less wrinkled, yellow; bala harade, smaller still, brown or black, VERY wrinkled; java harade, smallest of all. Unripe fruit, most purgative; ripe, astringent. Rangari: alterative, stomachic, laxative, tonic; survari, purgative; bala, mild, safe aperient, antibilious tho astringent. Used in fevers, cough, asthma, urinary diseases, piles, worms, rheumatism, scorpion sting. Bala, java for chronic diarrhea, dysentery, flatulence, vomiting, hiccup, colic, enlarged spleen, liver; many recipes, esp. with triphala, cinnamon, cardamoms, black pepper, valerian, long pepper, nutmeg, cubeba, picrorrhiza, rhubarb; also ext for hemorrhoids, piles, skin problems. Smoked for asthma; mouth wash; other recipes for dyspepsia, indigestion, vaginal discharge, neuralgia, sexual debility, alterative, etc. Paste made rubbing fruit with a little water and carron oil for burns, scalds; finely powdered used as dentrifice. Triphala with catechu, finely powdered and rubbed into a thick paste with ghee (or other bland oil) as ointment for aphthous or chronic ulcerations. Other species include T. citrina Roxb., T. paniculata Roth., T. tomentosa Redd.

Huang: fruit is he zi for diarrhea, collapsed anus, antispasmodic; Hsu: ho-tzu, he-zi dried fruit with bitter, sour, neutral; astringes lungs, intestines, benefits throat; used for chronic diarrhea, dysentery, rectal prolapse, aphonia from longstanding cough, hematochezia, leukorrhea, involuntary emission, nocturnal diaphoresis; test tube effects against staph, typhi, influenza; chebulin like papaverine in inhibiting smooth muscle spasm

Combretaceae. Grieve: NG

Tsarong: (cont'd) spreading fever, chronic inflammation of blood mixed with rLung, chronic cough with phlegm expectoration, fever from influenza afflicting lungs (93); febrifuge, eye inflammation, improves eye sight, watery eyes (98); headache from inflammations, blood, mKhris-pa disorders (108); mKhris-pa, rLung, indigestion, stomach/intestine pain with rumbling, bitter taste, yellow sclera (146); clears sense of taste, descending mKhris-pa into vessels with sx of stomach/intestine pain, nausea, headache, tumor in gall bladder, indigestion, halitosis (147); bad blood in lower body, analgesic, beginning 'bam disorder with sx of swelling, reddish-brown gums, dyspnea, pain in upper back (148); gall bladder inflammation, promotes bile secretion, appetite, yellowish eye mKhris-pa disorder with sx of hepatic region pain, stomach pain, nausea, emesis, bitter taste (149); used primarily to facilitate proper recognition of various disorders (specially compounded poisons, bad-kan sMug-po, chronic fever) that have spread and need to be drawn back to original source, balances body temperature, increases appetite, controls epistaxis, heals bad-kan, mKhris-pa, for frequent lethargy, thirst, stomach/hepatic pain, inflammation of channels and ureter (151); for all types of inflammations (165); anti-inflammatory, analgesic, inflammation of eyes, nasal cavity, pus in auditory canal (167); indigestion, flatulence, anticolic, laxative, difficulty expelling fetus/ placenta, clears normal pathway of rLung Thur-sel (173).

Iwu: NS-T. catappa stem bark, leaves for diarrhea, vermifuge, hemorrhoids; T. ivorensis stem bark leaves for arthritis, diuretic, hemorrhoids; T. superba fruit, bark, leaves used for labor, hemorrhoids; T. kaiserana listed as antihelmintic

Tinospora cordifolia, Miers. (Rege); also 60 mg (Punarvine)


Berberine, bitter substance

Guduchi. When reviewing Nadkarni, see also Cocculus cordifolius, Miers. Stem and root used; contains berberine; antiperiodic, alterative, diuretic; stem, roots are bitter. Used in scorpion sting; watery extract of plant used as febrifuge ("Indian quinine"); infusion of stem and root for debilitating diseases, intermittent fever, dyspepsia; efficacy in leprosy, secondary syphilis deemed doubtful. C. cordifolius has lengthy section, noting use of stem,fecula (starchy extract of gulancha), leaves, root. Similar properties; entire plant used, preferably fresh. various extracts made. Referred to as guduchi; not clear if C. cordifolia and T. cordifolia are synonymous?

Huang: NG; Hsu: NS-chin-kuo-lan, jin-guo-lan is dried stem of T. capillipes Gagnepain or T. sagittata Gagnepain, bitter, mild, pungent, cold for sore throat, hyperemia, cough from heat, aphonia, vomiting, epistaxis, furuncle, toxic swelling, mosquito or insect bites; ext for carbuncle; contains diterpene columbin, 2 alkaloids; don't confuse with kuan-jin-teng, to called "Chinese tinospora" is really Cissus pteroclada Hayada of Vitaceae family.

Menispermaceae. Grieve: NG, although there are discussions regaring Cocculus palmatus (a/k/a Jateorhiza columba), Calumba, dried root of which is used as bitter tonic without astringency (so no nausea, headache, sickness, feverishness); best as cold infusion; used in Mozambique for dysentery; also used as dye. Yellow Parilla (Menispermum canadense) where she notes the narcotic properties of Cocculus indicus are used; also known as Canadian Moonseed or Texas Sarsaparilla; rhizome and roots used; effects vary dramatically depending on using low or high dose.

Iwu: Stem, root bark used for fevers, parasitic infections, urethritis; T. barkis roots leaves used in tonics, for fevers, diarrhea, which is found in dry regions, savanna, from Mauritania to Tanzania; bark, root used in Senegal for fevers; also as emmenagogue. Lab studies show hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, increased oxidative burst in macrophages; synergistic effects in inhibiting cancer in mice; other mouse study showed effect reversing neutropenia from cyclophosphamide.

Tribulus terrestris, L.-60 (Punarvine)

Caltrop, Small Caltrops;

Grieve: Burra Gookeroo or burra gokhru

Fruit contains alkaloid, resin; glycosides (tribuloside, astragalin) and alkaloids (harmane, harmine)

Gokshura. Fruit, root used, but entire plant. Small amounts of an alkaloid in fruit, essential oil, unsaturated acids, resins and fair amount of nitrates; cooling, demulcent, diuretic (due to nitrates), tonic, aphrodisiac; stems astringent; used in S. Europe as aperient; a wide variety of recipes are provided to address gleet, gonorrhea, painful micturition, urinary tract disorders and discomfort, spermatorrhea and other signs and symptoms of genito-urinary diseases; formulae often include ingredients such as Mesua ferrea, cinnamon, pepper, cardamon, saffron, nutmeg, trikatu, triphala, etc. Also used in scorpion sting, jaundice, painful bladder and urethral diseases, dysuria, albuminuria, calculi and rheumatism. Electuaries often made for painful micturition, bloody urine, suppressed urine, etc.

Huang: dried fruit is ci ji li; water based extract is hypotensive, diuretic; used as anticonvulsant, to promote visual acuity; terestriamide give as cardiotonic agent; use with caution in pregnancy; Hsu: pungent, bitter, warm; soothes liver, suppresses wind, disperses blood stagnation, stops leukorrhea, relieves depression, clears vision, controls itching; used in headache, swollen, red eyes, mass in abdomen, agalactica. Has hypotensive, sedative effects.

Zygophyllaceae. Grieve: Notes it is also Pedalium murex and has it in the Pedaliaceae family; seeds used as diuretic, demulcent, aphrodisiac; for impotence in males, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhea, gleet, incontinence of urine.

Seed abortifacient, alterative, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, lactogogue, pectoral, tonic; stimulates blood circulation; decoction for impotency in males, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea and incontinence of urine; efficacy for painful urination, gout and kidney diseases; may have anticancer activity; flowers for leprosy; stems for scabious skin diseases, psoriasis; dried, concocted fruits for congestion, gas, headache, liver, ophthalmia and stomatitis.

Iwu: NS-T. maximus fruits, leaves used as a diuretic and for skin diseases.

Trichosanthes kirilowii, Maxim. (Huang)


Trichosanthin, TAP29; GLQ-223 is purified trichosanthin

NS-T. anguina, Linn. (snake-gourd) used; seeds cooling; fruits cooked are purgative; leaves, stalks and root also used medicinally; T.cucmerina, Linn. from Malabar; root purgative, tonic; leaf juice and seeds antihelmintic, antiperiodic. Ext. juice for alopecia. T. dioica, Roxb. is wild snakegourd; used in diet for sub-acute cases of enlarged liver. Other species include T. incisa, T. laciniosa, T. nervifolia, L., T. palmata, Roxb.

Huang: antianginal herb; gua lou is dried fruit; dilates coronary vessels, no significant toxicitiy; mildly hypotensive, chilling; trad. to remove heat, reduce phlegm; relieve chest stuffiness; dried root is tian hua fen and used to promote menstruation, action similar to oxytocin; facilitates placental expulsion; may induce abortion; roots, seeds contain TAP29, tricohosanthin. See table at end; inhibits HIV in T and phagocytes. Toxicities include myalgia, increased liver enzymes, mild-moderate anaphylactic reactions.

GLQ223 was studied in the 80s for its effects against HIV but was abandoned due to the risks of anaphylaxis which killed some patients. This may have been due to inappropriate dosing. Better controlled studies showed potential anti-HIV activity but required 3-hour infusions.

Vaccinium myrtillus

Blueberry leaf

Chlorogenic acid



Withania somnifera (Rege); also 60 mg (Punarvine)

(Linn.) Dunal.

a/k/a Physalis flexuosa

Winter cherry

Somniferin, a bitter alkaloid, found in southern European plant; also resin, fat, coloring matters; phytosterol, ippuranol, mixed saturated and unsaturated acids.

Ashwagandha; root used; astringent, bitter, sweet, hot; used as aphrodisiac, astringent, nervine, rejuvenative, sedative, tonic. An excellent herb; acts as tonic, adaptogen; contains bitter alkaloid somniferin; seeds coagulate milk but are poisonous; roots, leaves used as hypnotic in treating alcoholism, emphysematous dyspnea; leaves antihelmintic; root for obstinate or rheumatic swellings; for emaciated kids, senile or general debility, nervous exhaustion, loss of memory, muscular energy; spermatorrhea. Usually taken in the evening with milk or ghee; decoction of powder; also used for leucorrhea, bloody discharge; various formulae; enema for fistulas and dysentery; safe for kids. As poultice.

Huang: NS-except dried calyx of Physalis alkekengi franchetti (jin deng long) but not clear how similar this is; for sore throat; has some antibacterial effects; Hsu: NS-mentions same herb (suan-chiang, suan-jiang) with bitter flavor, cold property for cough, whooping cough, inadequate uterine contraction. Root, rhizome increase uterine contraction; used as an abortifacient in ancient China; fruit, calyx possess antipyretic, cardiotonic effects.

Solanaceae. Grieve: NS-again, Physalis alkekengi Linn but here she does refer to it as Winter Cherry; berrie aperient, diuretic for gravel, suppression of urine; leaves, stems to offset malaise following malaria; strong dose may cause constipation and "heaviness"; not as prompt in its action as sulfate of quinine but acts as febrifuge; leaves boiled act as good poultice. Notes P. viscosa (ground cherry or yellow henbane) used similarly; P. somnifera is a narcotic; leaves used warmed in castor oil in India applied to carbuncles, other inflammatory swellings; seeds used to coagulate milk; leaves found with Egyptian mummies; interestingly, she does not mention the use of the root at all.

Iwu: Leaves used for fever, convulsions, rheumatic pains; also in list of herbs used for skin diseases; notes both roots and leaves used for fever, chills, rheumatism; as antihelmintic in southern Africa; Zulu make an enema from root for hyperpyrexia in infants; Xhosa/Pedi use it to disinfect meat; contains alkaloids (withanine), withanolides; reverses neutropenia in cyclophosphamide fed mice; activates macrophages.

From http://www.oicainternational.co.uk/2005.htm

Herbal medicines are being used world wide for the treatment of various diseases including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Anti-HIV properties of different types of compounds isolated from a large number of medicinal plants. These include ketones and aldehydes isolated from Houttuynia cordata, phorbol esters from Excoecaria agallocha, tetracyclic diterpene tetraesters from Euphorbia myrsinites, pentacyclic triterpenes, galloyl and caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives isolated from commercially available tannic acid, or from plants Securidaca longipedunculata and Guiera senegalensis, triterpenoids from Syzigium claviflorum, novel kaurane type diterpene lactone neotripterifordin and triterpenes from Tripterygium wilfordii and Polyalthia suberosa, atropisomeric naphthylisoquinoline alkaloid. dimers, from a newly described species of Ancistrocladus, bergenins and 6-hydroxy tremetone from Ardisia japonica and Werneria ciliolata, novel chromone alkaloids from Schumanniophyton magnificumm and many related compounds. Flavanoids are the most commonly found constituents of many medicinal plants. Interestingly, they structurally resemble nucleosides, isoalloxazine and folic acid. Flavonoids show strong affinity for binding to proteins and heavy metals, have the ability to catalyse electron transport and to scavenge free radicals.


A Comparison of Ribosome-Inactivating Activity and Anti-HIV Activity of Four Anti-HIV Herbs


Anti-HIV Activity, ID50 (nM)



Ribosome-inactivation ID50 (nM)



Cytotoxicity TD50 (nM)

LD50 (ng/kg)

























SCRIP = single-chain ribosome-inactivating protein. From Huang, Table 37.1, p. 416:

Sources/References (aside from footnoted items):

For Ayurvedic medicine, mostly Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, India:revised, 1976; Vasant Lad's Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies,Three Rivers Press, New York, NY:1998 as well as Tirtha, Swami Sada Shiva, The Ayurvedic Encyclopedia, Ayurveda Holistic Center Press, Bayville, NY:1998.

For Chinese medicine, Hong-Yen Hsu's Chinese Materia Medica, Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Taiwan, ROC:1986 and Huang's Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL:1999.

For African medicine, from Iwu's Handbook of African Herbal Medicine, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL:1993.

For European medicine, Mrs. M. Grieve A Modern Herbal (orig. 1931), Dover Books, New York, NY:1982

For Tibetan Medicine, aside from the Handbook, information derived from the Dharmapala Centre : School of Thangka Painting, The 77 Medical Thangkas of the Blue Beryll; see http://www.bremen.de

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